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Apr 21, 2015

Trochanteric Bursitis

What is it? Trochanteric bursitis is one of the common causes of pain on the lateral (outside) of the hip and is the result of inflammation of the superficial (& deep in severe cases) trochanteric bursa.

In some cases inflammation of theese two bursae can be accompianed by local tendonitis or inflammation of the gluteal tendons & hip rotator muscles. 

What is a bursa? Bursa are small sacs or ‘cushions’ of fluid found throughout the body. They sit between tendons & bones  to allow tendons to slide without friction over bony sirfaces. When these sacs get inflammed or irritated they can cause pain.

Why? Trochanteric bursitis can occur as an overuse injury due repetitive friction of the gluteal tendons as they pass over the greater trochanter during activites such as running and cycling. In these cases there is usually biomechanical deficienies that need addressing. It can also be of acute onset from a direct blow or fall onto the lateral side of the hip.

What are the signs & symptoms?

  • Pain & swelling on the side of the hip
  • Pain may travel down the outside of the thigh
  • Pain aggravated by lying on affected side
  • Pain made worse by activities such as climbing stairs, crossing & uncrossing legs, rising from a low seated position, running & cycling.
  • Tenderness directly over the greater trochanter.

Read Full Fact Sheet HERE -  trochanteric bursitis.pdf

Categories Injury Information Tags hip pain trochanteric bursitis bursitis physio

Golfers Elbow

Golfers elbow or medial epicondylitis is a common cause of elbow pain. It is an overuse injury seen commonly in Golfers but also suffered by tennis players who hit a lot of top spin on their forehand shot. 

The muscles that work to produce wrist and finger flexion all attach at a common origin into the medial epicondyle (bony prominence) on the inside of the elbow. During certain activities (such as gripping) repetitive tension is placed through this group of muscles. If this constant strain is excessive the tendons can become overloaded, inflamed and painful. In the older sportsperson the tendons can also begin to show signs of degenerative wear and tear.


  • Tenderness over the medial (inside) of the elbow which can radiate into the forearm.
  • Pain on resisted wrist flexion and forearm pronation (rotation of the forearm)
  • Pain on passive wrist extension as this places stretch through the tight group of muscles
  • Pain may be aggravated by gripping activities. 

DIAGNOSIS: A physiotherapist should be able to make an accurate diagnosis from your clinical history and examination.

In cases where your condition does not respond to appropriate treatment further investigation such as an ultrasound may be warranted.


Categories Injury Information Tags elbow pain golfers elbow physio massage rehabilitation

Aug 28, 2014

ITB Friction Syndrome

Iliotibial band (ITB) Friction syndrome if one of the most common causes of lateral (outside) knee pain that we see, especially in runners.

The ITB is a band of connective tissue that spans the length of the outer thigh. It originates up at the hip from another structure called the TFL (tensor fascia lata) and inserts onto the tibia just below the knee.

ITB friction occurs when the ITB gets tight & inflamed and begins to rub over the lateral femoral condyle on the outside of the knee joint producing acute pain in this area.


ITB friction syndrome.pdf)


Categories Injury Information Tags ITB friction knee pain runners knee ITB running pain knee exercise run fitness physiotherapy massage strengthening

Jul 30, 2014

Stress Fracture

Stress fractures are an overuse injury that we see most commonly in the leg. 50% of all stress fractures are found in the weight bearing bones whether it be of the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone) or in the foot itself.

A stress fracture is the result of excessive stress through a particular region. Soft tissues in the area get overloaded and transfer their stress to the bone resulting intially in a stress reaction in the bone. With continued load a stress farcture will appear.

Generally stress fractures occur when an athlete has a sudden increase in training loads. Other facors such as a change in footwear, training on unfamiliar surfaces or increase in intensity of training can also result in this injury.

Easily the most common sport we tend to see stress fractures in is running due to repetitive impact of the foot striking the ground. Other common sports include tennis, basketball & gymnastics.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET

stress fractures.pdf

Categories Injury Information Tags stress fracture pain overuse running rest physiotherapy fracture

Jul 11, 2014

Hamstring Tear

The hamstring muscle group consists of three muscles located at the back of the thigh. Semimembranosis, semitendinosis and biceps femoris. The hamstring is a common site for injury across many sports including running, rugby, soccer, tennis and AFL.

The anatomical ‘architecture’ of the hamstring is quite complex. All three muscles share a common point of origin at the ischial tuberosity (the bony prominence found deep in the lower buttock that we sit on).

Pain in the hamstring region is usually attrituted to one of two things; an injury the hamstring muscle itself, or referred pain due to injury higher up in the buttock or lumbar spine.

Have you torn your hamstring? A torn or strained hamstring is a memorable event. Usually you are mid activity & you feel a sudden severe pain at the back of the thigh. You are usually unable to continue with activity due to pain.

Your physiotherapist will also use a variety of assessment techniques to detemrine whether the tear is located in the muscle belly or the hamstring tendon.

Risk factors? Previous injury, poor strength, lack of flexibility, inadequate warm up and imbalance

between quadriceps & hamstring may potentially increase the risk of an injury from occuring.

Signs & Symptoms can include:

Pain at the back of the leg of sudden onset

Pain on hamstring stretch

Pain on resisted hamstring contraction – your physio will do a variety of tests to assess this.

Bruising may be present at the site of the tear or below depending on the severity.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET

hamstring strain.pdf

Categories Injury Information Shin pain Tags hamstring hamstring tear injury muscle tear physiotherapy rehabilitation pain strain

Dec 2, 2013

Anterior Compartment Sydrome

The muscles in the lower leg are divided into a number of compartments encased by thick connective tissue. Within these ‘compartments’ sits muscles, nerves and blood vessels. The anterior compartment is located at the front of the outside of the shin bone (tibia)

Typically when we exercise, blood flow to our muscles increases to meet the energy requirements of the working muscles. This increased flow causes the muscles to ‘swell’. In the situation where there is not enough room in the compartment to accommodate the increase in muscle volume, inter-compartmental pressure rises which can produce pain. 


  • Pain (aching, cramping) at the front of the shin felt to the outside of the shin bone
  • Generally pain is only felt during exercise and ceases when exercise stops (as the pressure within the compartment returns to normal)
  • In some cases sensations of numbness, weakness or pins and needles can be experienced in the lower leg and foot.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET

anterior compartment syndrome.pdf

Categories Shin pain Tags anterior compartment syndrome shin pain leg pain exercise running dry needling physiotherapy acupuncture

Nov 5, 2013

Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) often referred to as ‘runners knee’ is the most common cause of anterior (front) knee pain. As the knee moves from a straght to a bent position the patella should track in the intercondylar groove of the femur. In order for ths to happen the patella is held in place by a balance of muscles and tendons around the knee.

PFP is the result of maltracking of the patella and this is most commonly the result of an imbalance of the quadriceps muscles with the lateral (outer) structures incuding the ITB and vastus alteralis becoming excessively tight while the medial (inside) quadricep is weak. These tight muscles exert a powerful lateral pull on the patella causing it to track slighty off centre resulting in pain and inflammation at the front of the knee.



Tags knee pain patellofemoral pain running exercise PFP Runners knee

Mar 26, 2013

Shoulder Impingement

Known by a variety of names such as rotator cuff tendinitis, swimmers shoulder, throwers shoulder subacromial impingement or subacromial bursitis, this clinical syndrome occurs when the rotator cuff
tendons become irritated and inflamed as they pass through the subacromial space.

This can be an overuse injury due to repetitive or prolonged strain on the rotator cuff tendons such
as with overhead activities, pulling/pushing, lifting or repetitive reaching. It can also be the result of a
direct blow or fall onto the point of the shoulder forcing the head of the humerus upwards into the subacromial space creating a pinching effect on the rotator cuff tendon.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Tags Shoulder impingement subacromial bursitis rotator cuff tendonitis subacromial impingement

Patella Tendonitis

The Patella tendon runs from the base of the patella (kneecap) to a bony prominence called the tibial tuberosity on the front of the shin.

Patella tendonitis occurs when this tendon gets inflamed. This is most commonly seen in younger athletes who perform alot of repetitive jumping and running.

Patella tendinosis is a chronic condition caused by the gradual development of microscopic tears and thickening within the tendon.

Click on the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Tags patella tendonitis patella tendinosis knee pain

Osgood Schlatter's Disease

Osgood Schlatters is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents, particularly those aged between 9 and 14 years and is more predominant in boys.

The quadriceps tendon inserts onto the top of the patella then continues down to its attachment on the front of the shin bone (tibia) via the tibial tuberosity.

Repeated contraction of the quadriceps tendon (which occurs with repetitive straightening of the knee) can begin to traction at this attachment on the shin bone. This causes irritation and softening of the tibial tuberosity.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Sever's Disease

Severs Disease is the most common source of heel pain in adolescents, particularly those aged between 9 and 14 years.

In children the heel bone (calcaneus) doesn’t fully develop until about the age of 15. As the child grows new bone forms at the growth plate, which is a weakened area of soft bone at the back of the heel.

The calf muscle attaches directly onto this area at the back of the heel. Repetitive strain is placed on this area by activities such as running and jumping within sport.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain usually involves a tear of one or more of the ligaments on the lateral (outside) aspect of the ankle. There are three ligaments that comprise that lateral ligament complex functioing to provide stability to the ankle joint.

Lateral ligaments are injured when they are overstretched. This usually occurs when the ankle is forcefully rolled inwards (inversion). This can occur during rapid changes or direction, jumping or landing unevenly, running on uneven ground or tripping on an object on the ground.

Click the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Tags ankle sprain rolled ankle pain

Tennis Elbow

Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is the most common cause of pain on the outside of the elbow. It is an overuse injury to the extensor tendons of the wrist where they converge to insert onto the bony prominence on the outside of the elbow.

It is not purely an inflammation of these tendons; there is a degenerative component whereby overuse of these muscles has caused micro tears to develop within the tendons.

You don’t have to be a tennis player to suffer tennis elbow. It is caused by repetitive overuse of the wrist and forearm muscles in tasks such as typing or gripping.

Click on the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tears

The ACL is the most important ligament providing stability to the knee. The ACL originates at the back of the knee on the femur (thigh bone) and inserts into the front of the tibia (shin bone). Its main function is to prevent forward translation of the tibia whilst also providing rotational stability to the knee.

The ACL can be torn in several different ways. Landing from a jump, when a twisting force is applied to the knee whilst the foot is planted to the ground or when the knee is forced into hyperextension.

Click on the link below to access the FULL FACT SHEET


Shin Splints

Medial tibial stress syndrome or ‘shin splints’ as most people know it as is one of the most common cause of shin pain, particularly found in runners or athletes who play sports requiring high amounts of running.

Click on the link below to read the FULL FACT SHEET


Tags Shin splints running exercise

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Tears

The PCL is one of four major stabilising ligaments of the knee. It functions to prevent backwards movement of the shin bone (tibia) in relation to the thigh bone (femur) whilst also providing rotational stability and preventing hyperextension.

The PCL is commonly injured in a traumatic event resulting in a direct blow to the front of the knee forcing the tibia backwards in relation to the femur, or from a twisting or hyperextension injury.

Click the link below to read the FULL FACT SHEET